ilustrasi new normal/dok

Oleh: Sri Mulyadi

WACANA penerapan new normal atau konsep tatanan kehidupan normal yang baru, makin berkembang. Bahkan ada daerah yang sudah mulai siap-siap memberlakukan. Presiden Jokowi, 26 Mei lalu, juga telah mengunjungi Summarecon Mall, Kota Bekasi Jabar, melihat kesiapan penerapan prosedur standar new normal di sarana niaga.

Mbahmul Sri Mulyadi

Sementara pandemi covid-19 belum menunjukkan tanda-tanda mereda. Pada tanggal 21 Mei, malah terjadi lonjakan. Sehari tambah 973 kasus positif. Angka ini, menurut Juru Bicara Pemerintah untuk Penanganan Covid-19, Achmad Yurianto, merupakan angka penambahan tertinggi selama dua bulan terakhir.

Secara nasional, per 21 Mei, totalnya menjadi 20.162 kasus. Sedangkan pada Jumat, 29 Mei, ada penambahan 678 kasus, sehingga menjadi 25.216 orang. Sementara yang sembuh mencapai 6.492 dan meninggal 1.520 orang.

Baca Juga: Corona Belum Mereda, Selanjutnya..?

Dari angka itu, dalam kurun waktu 21-29 Mei, ada penambahan 5.054 orang. Hal ini tentu bisa dimaknai bahwa hingga saat ini ancaman virus corona belum mereda. Tiap hari masih ada penambahan ratusan kasus, meskipun banyak juga wilayah yang melaporkan tidak ada penambahan jumlah positif.

Kalau melihat dari grafik orang yang terpapar dalam artian terkena virus corona yang cenderung masih naik terus, rasanya memang khawatir juga jika konsep new normal diberlakukan. Sekali pun pemberlakuannya tentu tidak serentak, tergantung kondisi daerah/wilayah  masing-masing.

Sebaliknya, di satu sisi, tuntutan sebagian masyarakat tentu tak mudah dibendung. Mereka merasa sudah cukup lama ‘’terkungkung’’ (paling tidak sejak 1 Maret 2020), saat covid-19 diketahui masuk Indonesia (menurut Menkes Terawan Agus Putranto).

Kejenuhan akibat harus tetap tinggal di rumah, membatasi pergaulan, beribadah, bekerja/mencari nafkah, tidak bisa berkumpul dengan teman atau sanak saudara, telah mulai terasa menyiksa. Indikasinya, mulai banyak warga yang nekat ke luar rumah.

Motif mereka tentu tak sekadar jenuh di rumah, namun ada juga alasan lain, khususnya yang terkait dengan masalah ekonomi. Umumnya karena tuntutan pekerjaan atau perut, karena bila tidak berkerja mereka tak memperoleh nafkah untuk dirinya maupun keluarga.

Menuntut ilmu hanya lewat daring, tidak dapat mudik, berwisata, mengunjungi tempat-tempat umum, dan ketentuan lain terkait protokol kesehatan,  juga telah terasa menyandera kehidupan warga.

Pukulan terhadap dunia usaha juga sudah cukup berat. Bahkan sebagian perusahaan terpaksa melakukan pemutusan hubungan kerja (PHK) terhadap karyawan untuk efesiensi pengeluaran biaya, atau karena usahanya harus berhenti.

Justru usaha kecil  atau menengah ini yang banyak terkena dampak pembatasan. Misalnya, pedagang pasar tradisional, warung makan, pedagang keliling, dan sejenisnya. Dan mereka ini jumlahnya sangat banyak.

Pilihan  

 Persoalan yang kemudian muncul adalah, mana yang harus dipilih. Menunggu hingga corona mereda, misalnya penambahan jumlah terpapar per hari stabil rendah (tolok ukurnya berapa), bahkan nol. Atau memberlakukan konsep normal baru yang berarti hidup berdampingan dengan virus corona di sekitar kita.

Dua hal yang merupakan pilihan sulit. Dua-duanya mengandung risiko serius. Kalau memilih menerapkan new normal, konsekuensinya beberapa hal harus dipenuhi.

Menurut Epidemiolog dari Griffith University Australia, Dicky Budiman, selama new normal tetap harus ada pembatasan jumlah kerumunan. Batasan jarak, keharusan memakai masker dimana pun, dan dilakukan pemantauan suhu badan di setiap kantor, mal, sekolah, dan lainnya.

Anak-anak yang sakit batuk atau flu dilarang ke sekolah, atau pegawai kantor yang flu juga dilarang masuk kantor. “Di transportasi publik, diatur jumlah penumpang per kendaraan (bus atau busway) atau gerbong kereta api juga wajib diatur,” ungkap Dicky sebagaimana dikutip Kompas.com.

Itu baru dari sisi kesehatan, belum menyangkut aspek lain yang terkait mitigasi yang menurut UU 24 Tahun 2007 Tentang Penanggulangan Bencana, adalah serangkaian upaya untuk mengurangi risiko bencana. Baik melalui pembangunan fisik maupun penyadaran dan peningkatan kemampuan menghadapi ancaman bencana.

Risiko dimaksud tentu tak sekadar dilihat dari faktor kesehatan, lebih luas lagi menyangkut aspek sosial, ekonomi, psikologis, dan lainnya. Semua memerlukan penyadaran, dan peningkatan kemampuan menghadapi virus corona yang hingga kini belum ditemukan vaksin penangkalnya.

Minimal masyarakat harus sadar dalam arti mengerti bahwa new normal itu suatu kondisi yang berbeda dari situasi sebelum covid-19 merambah Indonesia. Dengan demikian tidak terjadi euforia atau munculnya perasaan nyaman atau kegembiraan yang berlebihan, sehingga mengabaikan rambu-rambu yang telah ditetapkan pemerintah.

Jangan sampai terjadi begitu diberlakukan kebiasaan sebelum pandemi muncul kembali. Misalnya arisan, kumpul-kumpul dengan teman atau sanak saudara, berkerumun di tempat keramaian, atau lainnya yang melibatkan banyak orang.

Penyadaran itu tentu butuh proses, tidak serta merta masyarakat langsung mengerti terhadap ‘’kelonggaran’’ yang bernama new normal itu. Dengan demikian, bila perlu, ada jeda waktu guna melakukan adaptasi. Kondisi ini juga berlaku bagi sektor usaha, baik kecil, menengah, maupun besar.

Sudah Siapkah Pemerintah?

Pertanyaan yang kemudian muncul, bagaimana persiapan pemerintah pusat dan pemerintah daerah? Ini butuh satu jawaban pasti, karena berdasar UU No 24 Tahun 2007, pemerintah bertanggung jawab terhadap penanggulangan bencana. Risiko pilihan yang mana pun, muaranya ada pada pemerintah.

Hal itu mengingat pandemi covid-19, masuk ranah bencana, khususnya nonalam.  Bencana yang diakibatkan oleh peristiwa atau rangkaian peristiwa nonalam yang antara lain berupa gagal teknologi, gagal moderisasi, epidemi, dan wabah penyakit. Dan virus corona masuk epidemi dan wabah penyakit.

Tujuan new normal jelas baik. Jangan sampai masyarakat terpapar/terkena virus corona, sehingga diberlakukan protokol khusus menjaga diri agar tak terkena. Juga jangan sampai memunculkan dampak terkapar, yang menurut istilah Kepala BNPB Doni Monardo, tak memunculkan PHK. Atau bisa juga dimaknai suatu kondisi tak berdadaya (baik perorangan maupun dunia usaha), yang diakibatkan pandemi covid-19, sehingga tak dapat beraktifitas sebagaimana seharusnya.

New normal juga bisa dianggap suatu kelonggaran agar masyarakat ada kesempatan mencari nafkah, sehingga tidak memunculkan kondisi lapar. Istilah orang Jawa, ‘’ora obah ora mamah’’ atau tidak bekerja tidak bisa makan.

Hanya saja, persoalannya tentu tak sebatas tujuan baiknya, namun menyangkut aspek lain. Mulai dari perencanaan, persiapan hingga implementasi konsep tersebut, serta kesiapan data.

Misalnya, kalau daerah tertentu memberlakukan new normal, pertanyaan sederhanya, apakah telah dipersiapkan secara matang? Sudahkan dikoordinasikan dengan forum komunikasi pimpinan daerah (Forkompimda), stakeholder atau pemangku kepentingan yang lain, serta dikomukasikan ke masyarakat  secara luas?

Hal itu mengingat konsep new normal pasti butuh sosialisasi dan pengawasan saat implementasi. Bagaimana koordinasi dan persebaran pengawasan, serta anggarannya. Mereka yang terlibat, dituntut untuk mampu mendidik, melibatkan, dan memberdayakan masyarakat untuk hidup dalam kondisi new normal.

Di sini lah peran sentral kepala daerah, karena punya hak otonom atau hak mengatur rumah tangganya sendiri, sekaligus membuat regulasi. Baik menyangkut kebijakan anggaran penanganan bencana maupun soal penetapan waktu new normal.

Semua itu memang risiko dari langkah mitigasi bencana. Yang pasti dan tidak boleh terlupakan, bagaimana kalau konsep new normal itu justru memunculkan dampak yang tak diinginkan?

Misalnya, selama new normal diberlakukan, jumlah warga yang positif covid-19 tidak berkurang, atau bahkan (tentu ini tidak kita harapkan) malah bertambah. Atau ada juga yang mengistilahkan ledakan gelombang kedua.

Skenario Kondisi Terjelek

 Jika kebijakan ‘’kelonggaran kebebasan’’ aktifitas masyarakat tak terkendali atau masyarakat gagal paham terhadap konsep new normal, kemungkinan itu bisa saja terjadi. Sudah disiapkan kah sumber dayanya? Baik sumber daya manusia berupa tenaga medis, relawan, sarana fisik untuk isolasi atau perawatan pasien, perlengkapan pengaman atau alat pelindung diri, dan sebagainya.

Lagi-lagi kuncinya terletak pada kesiapan pemerintah yang didukung masyarakat dan dunia usaha. Bila tiga elemen ini mampu menyatu dan membentuk gerakan terpadu, dengan ridlo Yang Maha Kuasa, akan memunculkan kondisi tangguh bencana, dalam artian mampu mengatasi sendiri persoalan bencana yang dihadapi.

Sebagai ilustrasi, salah satu bentuk implementasi hidup serasi berdampingan dengan bencana, di Kabupaten Magelang, Jawa Tengah, diterapkan konsep desa bersaudara.

Apabila Gunung Merapi meletus/erupsi dan mengancam warga yang bermukim di kawasan rawan bencana (KRB), mereka mengungsi ke warga di desa lain yang permukimannya aman. Warga desa yang ditempati pengungsi ini akan menerima dengan senang hati, karena memang sudah ada kesepakatan sebelumnya. Juga sudah diatur siapa mengungsi kemana dan tempatnya dimana.

Ini merupakan salah satu implementasi tangguh bencana yang didukung kearifan lokal (gotong royong). Namun ancamannya bisa diprediksi, bisa dirasakan,  dan terlihat.

Lantas bagaimana bila ancaman itu berupa virus corona yang tak terlihat dan tak berbau, bahkan ada masa inkubasinya? Inilah persoalan yang perlu diantisipasi secara matang, termasuk skenario mengatasi apabila konsep tak berjalan sebagaimana mestinya.

Jika perlu mengadopsi hal serupa dari negara lain, kemudian diterapkan setelah disesuaikan dengan kondisi sosial budaya masyarakat Indonesia. Masing-masing pihak, pemerintah dan masyarakat, menyadari hak dan kewajibannya, sehingga tak memunculkan problem sosial serius.

Semoga konsep new normal mampu mengatasi persoalan tak terpapar/terkena virus corona, tak terkapar atau tak berdaya sehingga tak dapat mengembangkan diri/usaha, serta tak memunculkan dampak lapar akibat warga kesulitan mencari nafkah.

Juga tidak dijadikan ‘’barang jualan di tahun pilkada’’ serta tak ada kepentingan pihak/golongan tertentu di balik kebijakan new normal di tengah pandemi virus corona yang masih belum mereda. Amin.

(Sri Mulyadi, wartawan SUARABARU.ID)

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